dolfin¶
FEniCS/Dolfin support submodule.
Basic example:
Find many more examples in vedo/examples/dolfin
Image Gallery¶
(click on the figure to get to the script) 

Poisson equation with Dirichlet conditions 
Generate a tetmesh from a polygonal surface 
Extract submesh boundaries 
Get pi from the integral of a circle 
Solve a hyperelasticity problem… 
…with different types of visulizations. 
Diffusion of a Gaussian hill 
Solve the CahnHilliard equation 
The NavierStokes equations on Lshaped domain 
Stokes equations with TaylorHood elements 
Timeintegration of the elastodynamics equation 
Deflection of a membrane under a point load 
Magnetic field of a solenoid 
Patterns of Turing type reactiondiffusion 
Scale and elevate a mesh along one coordinate 
Heat equation in a moving media 
A soft beam deforming under its own weight 
The 1D wave eq. with the Crank Nicolson method 
Customizing axes style and appearance 
The wave equation in arbitrary nr. of dimensions 
Latex¶

class
vedo.dolfin.
Latex
(formula, pos=0, 0, 0, c='k', s=1, bg=None, alpha=1, res=30, usetex=False, fromweb=False)[source]¶ Bases:
vedo.picture.Picture
Render Latex formulas.
 Parameters
You can access the latex formula in Latex.formula’.
Plotter¶

class
vedo.dolfin.
Plotter
(shape=1, 1, N=None, pos=0, 0, size='auto', screensize='auto', title='', bg='white', bg2=None, axes=None, sharecam=True, resetcam=True, interactive=None, offscreen=False, qtWidget=None)[source]¶ Bases:
object
Main class to manage actors.
 Parameters
shape (list) – shape of the grid of renderers in format (rows, columns). Ignored if N is specified.
N (int) – number of desired renderers arranged in a grid automatically.
pos (list) – (x,y) position in pixels of topleft corner of the rendering window on the screen
size – size of the rendering window. If ‘auto’, guess it based on screensize.
screensize – physical size of the monitor screen
bg – background color or specify jpg image file name with path
bg2 – background color of a gradient towards the top
axes (int) –
0, no axes
1, draw three gray grid walls
2, show cartesian axes from (0,0,0)
3, show positive range of cartesian axes from (0,0,0)
4, show a triad at bottom left
5, show a cube at bottom left
6, mark the corners of the bounding box
7, draw a 3D ruler at each side of the cartesian axes
8, show the VTK
CubeAxesActor
object9, show the bounding box outLine,
10, show three circles representing the maximum bounding box,
11, show a large grid on the xy plane (use with zoom=8)
12, show polar axes.
13, draw a simple ruler at the bottom of the window
Axis type1 can be fully customized by passing a dictionary
axes=dict()
. CheckAxes()
for the available options. Parameters
sharecam (bool) – if False each renderer will have an independent vtkCamera
interactive (bool) – if True will stop after show() to allow interaction w/ window
offscreen (bool) – if True will not show the rendering window
qtWidget (QVTKRenderWindowInteractor) – render in a QtWidget using an QVTKRenderWindowInteractor. Overrides offscreen to True Overrides interactive to False See Also: examples qt_windows1.py and qt_windows2.py

add
(actors, render=True, at=None)[source]¶ Append input object to the internal list of actors to be shown.

addButton
(fnc, states='On', 'Off', c='w', 'w', bc='dg', 'dr', pos=20, 40, size=24, font='Normografo', bold=False, italic=False, alpha=1, angle=0)[source]¶ Add a button to the renderer window.
 Parameters
states (list) – a list of possible states, e.g. [‘On’, ‘Off’]
c – a list of colors for each state
bc – a list of background colors for each state
pos – 2D position in pixels from leftbottom corner
size – size of button font
font (str) – font type (arial, courier, times)
bold (bool) – bold face (False)
italic (bool) – italic face (False)
alpha (float) – opacity level
angle (float) – anticlockwise rotation in degrees

addGlobalAxes
(axtype=None, c=None)[source]¶ Draw axes on scene. Available axes types:
 Parameters
axtype (int) –
0, no axes,
1, draw three gray grid walls
2, show cartesian axes from (0,0,0)
3, show positive range of cartesian axes from (0,0,0)
4, show a triad at bottom left
5, show a cube at bottom left
6, mark the corners of the bounding box
7, draw a 3D ruler at each side of the cartesian axes
8, show the
vtkCubeAxesActor
object9, show the bounding box outLine
10, show three circles representing the maximum bounding box
11, show a large grid on the xy plane
12, show polar axes
13, draw a simple ruler at the bottom of the window
Axis type1 can be fully customized by passing a dictionary
axes=dict()
. Example
from vedo import Box, show b = Box(pos=(0,0,0), length=80, width=90, height=70).alpha(0) show(b, axes={ 'xtitle':'Some long variable [a.u.]', 'numberOfDivisions':4, # ... } )

addIcon
(icon, pos=3, size=0.08)[source]¶ Add an inset icon mesh into the same renderer.
 Parameters
pos – icon position in the range [14] indicating one of the 4 corners, or it can be a tuple (x,y) as a fraction of the renderer size.
size (float) – size of the square inset.

addInset
(*actors, **options)[source]¶ Add a draggable inset space into a renderer.
 Parameters
at (int) – specify the renderer number
pos – icon position in the range [14] indicating one of the 4 corners, or it can be a tuple (x,y) as a fraction of the renderer size.
size (float) – size of the square inset.
draggable (bool) – if True the subrenderer space can be dragged around.
c – color of the inset frame when dragged

addSlider2D
(sliderfunc, xmin, xmax, value=None, pos=4, title='', font='arial', titleSize=1, c=None, showValue=True)[source]¶ Add a slider widget which can call an external custom function.
 Parameters
sliderfunc – external function to be called by the widget
xmin (float) – lower value
xmax (float) – upper value
value (float) – current value
pos (list) – position corner number: horizontal [15] or vertical [1115] it can also be specified by corners coordinates [(x1,y1), (x2,y2)]
title (str) – title text
titleSize (float) – title text scale [1.0]
font (str) – title font [arial, courier]
showValue (bool) – if true current value is shown

addSlider3D
(sliderfunc, pos1, pos2, xmin, xmax, value=None, s=0.03, t=1, title='', rotation=0, c=None, showValue=True)[source]¶ Add a 3D slider widget which can call an external custom function.
 Parameters
sliderfunc – external function to be called by the widget
pos1 (list) – first position coordinates
pos2 (list) – second position coordinates
xmin (float) – lower value
xmax (float) – upper value
value (float) – initial value
s (float) – label scaling factor
t (float) – tube scaling factor
title (str) – title text
c – slider color
rotation (float) – title rotation around slider axis
showValue (bool) – if True current value is shown

backgroundColor
(c1=None, c2=None, at=None)[source]¶ Set the color of the background for the current renderer. A different renderer index can be specified by keyword
at
.

getMeshes
(obj=None, renderer=None)[source]¶ Return a list of Meshes (which may include Volume objects too).
 If
obj
is: None
, return meshes of current rendererint
, return meshes in given renderer numbervtkAssembly
return the contained meshesstring
, return meshes matching legend name
 Parameters
renderer (int,vtkRenderer) – specify which renederer to look into.
 If

getVolumes
(obj=None, renderer=None)[source]¶ Return the list of the rendered Volumes.
 If
obj
is: None
, return volumes of current rendererint
, return volumes in given renderer number
 Parameters
renderer (int,vtkRenderer) – specify which renederer to look into.
 If

load
(filename, unpack=True, force=False)[source]¶ Load Mesh and Volume objects from file. The output will depend on the file extension. See examples below.
 Parameters
 Example
from vedo import datadir, load, show # Return a list of 2 Mesh g = load([datadir+'250.vtk', datadir+'290.vtk']) show(g) # Return a list of meshes by reading all files in a directory # (if directory contains DICOM files then a Volume is returned) g = load('mydicomdir/') show(g) # Return a Volume. Color/Opacity transfer function can be specified too. g = load(datadir+'embryo.slc') g.c(['y','lb','w']).alpha((0.0, 0.4, 0.9, 1)).show()

moveCamera
(camstart, camstop, fraction)[source]¶ Takes as input two
vtkCamera
objects and returns a newvtkCamera
that is at an intermediate position:fraction=0 > camstart, fraction=1 > camstop.
Press
shiftC
key in interactive mode to dump a python snipplet of parameters for the current camera view.

parallelProjection
(value=True)[source]¶ Use parallel projection. Obecjt is seen from “infinite” distance”, e.i. remove any perspective effects.

screenshot
(filename='screenshot.png', scale=None, returnNumpy=False)[source]¶ Take a screenshot of the Plotter window.

show
(*actors, **options)[source]¶ Render a list of actors.
Allowed input objects are:
filename
,vtkPolyData
,vtkActor
,vtkActor2D
,vtkImageActor
,vtkAssembly
orvtkVolume
.If filename is given, its type is guessed based on its extension. Supported formats are: vtu, vts, vtp, ply, obj, stl, 3ds, xml, neutral, gmsh, pcd, xyz, txt, byu, tif, slc, vti, mhd, png, jpg.
 Parameters
at (int) – number of the renderer to plot to, if more than one exists
shape (list) –
Number of subrender windows inside of the main window. Specify two across with
shape=(2, 1)
and a two by two grid withshape=(2, 2)
. By default there is only one renderer. Can also accept a shape as string descriptor. E.g.shape=”31” means 3 plots on the left and 1 on the right,
shape=”4/2” means 4 plots on top of 2 at bottom.
axes (int) –
set the type of axes to be shown
0, no axes
1, draw three customizable gray grid walls
2, show cartesian axes from (0,0,0)
3, show positive range of cartesian axes from (0,0,0)
4, show a triad at bottom left
5, show a cube at bottom left
6, mark the corners of the bounding box
7, draw a 3D ruler at each side of the cartesian axes
8, show the
vtkCubeAxesActor
object9, show the bounding box outLine
10, show three circles representing the maximum bounding box
11, show a large grid on the xy plane (use with zoom=8)
12, show polar axes
13, draw a simple ruler at the bottom of the window
azimuth/elevation/roll (float) – move camera accordingly
viewup (str) – either [‘x’, ‘y’, ‘z’] to set vertical direction
resetcam (bool) – readjust camera position to fit objects
camera (dict) –
Camera parameters can further be specified with a dictionary assigned to the
camera
keyword (E.g. show(camera={‘pos’:(1,2,3), ‘thickness’:1000,}))pos, (list), the position of the camera in world coordinates
focalPoint (list), the focal point of the camera in world coordinates
viewup (list), the view up direction vector for the camera
distance (float), set the focal point to the specified distance from the camera position.
 clippingRange (float), distance of the near and far clipping planes along
the direction of projection.
 parallelScale (float),
scaling used for a parallel projection, i.e. the height of the viewport in worldcoordinate distances. The default is 1. Note that the “scale” parameter works as an “inverse scale”, larger numbers produce smaller images. This method has no effect in perspective projection mode.
 thickness (float),
set the distance between clipping planes. This method adjusts the far clipping plane to be set a distance ‘thickness’ beyond the near clipping plane.
 viewAngle (float),
the camera view angle, which is the angular height of the camera view measured in degrees. The default angle is 30 degrees. This method has no effect in parallel projection mode. The formula for setting the angle up for perfect perspective viewing is: angle = 2*atan((h/2)/d) where h is the height of the RenderWindow (measured by holding a ruler up to your screen) and d is the distance from your eyes to the screen.
interactive (bool) – pause and interact with window (True) or continue execution (False)
rate (float) – maximum rate of show() in Hertz
interactorStyle (int) – set the type of interaction  0 = TrackballCamera [default]  1 = TrackballActor  2 = JoystickCamera  3 = JoystickActor  4 = Flight  5 = RubberBand2D  6 = RubberBand3D  7 = RubberBandZoom  8 = Context  9 = 3D  10 = Terrain  11 = Unicam
q (bool) – force program to quit after show() command returns.
ProgressBar¶

class
vedo.dolfin.
ProgressBar
(start, stop, step=1, c=None, bold=True, italic=False, title='', ETA=True, width=25, char='━', char_back='─')[source]¶ Bases:
object
Class to print a progress bar with optional text message.
 Example
import time pb = ProgressBar(0,400, c='red') for i in pb.range(): time.sleep(.1) pb.print('some message')
Text¶

class
vedo.dolfin.
Text
(txt, pos=0, 0, 0, s=1, font='', hspacing=1.15, vspacing=2.15, depth=0, italic=False, justify='bottomleft', c=None, alpha=1, literal=False)[source]¶ Bases:
vedo.mesh.Mesh
Generate a 3D polygonal
Mesh
representing a text string.Can render strings like 3.7 10^9 or H_2 O with subscripts and superscripts. Most Latex symbols are also supported (e.g. mu_lambda). Symbols ~ ^ _ are reserved modifiers:
use ~ to add a short space, 1/4 of the default empty space, use ^ and _ to start up/sub scripting, a space terminates their effect.
 Parameters
pos (list) – position coordinates in 3D space
s (float) – size of text.
depth (float) – text thickness.
italic (bool,float) – italic font type (can be a signed float too).
justify (str) – text justification as centering of the bounding box (bottomleft, bottomright, topleft, topright, centered).
font (str) – available 3Dpolygonized fonts are Bongas, Calco, Comae, Kanopus, Glasgo, LionelOfParis, LogoType, Normografo, Quikhand, SmartCouric, Theemim, VictorMono, VTK. Default is Normografo, which can be changed using
settings.defaultFont
hspacing (float) – horizontal spacing of the font.
vspacing (float) – vertical spacing of the font for multiple lines text.
literal (bool) – if set to True will ignore modifiers like _ or ^
Text2D¶

vedo.dolfin.
Text2D
(txt, pos=3, s=1, c=None, alpha=0.15, bg=None, font='', justify='bottomleft', bold=False, italic=False)[source]¶ Returns a
vtkActor2D
representing 2D text. Parameters
text is placed in one of the 8 positions:
1, bottomleft 2, bottomright 3, topleft 4, topright 5, bottommiddle 6, middleright 7, middleleft 8, topmiddle
If a pair (x,y) is passed as input the 2D text is place at that position in the coordinate system of the 2D screen (with the origin sitting at the bottom left).
s (float) – size of text.
bg – background color
alpha (float) – background opacity
justify (str) – text justification
font (str) –
predefined available fonts are
Arial
Bongas
Calco
Comae
Courier
Glasgo
Kanopus
LionelOfParis
LogoType
Normografo
Quikhand
SmartCouric
Theemim
Times
VictorMono
A path to a .otf or .ttf fontfile can also be supplied as input.
Video¶

class
vedo.dolfin.
Video
(name='movie.mp4', duration=None, fps=24, backend='ffmpeg')[source]¶ Bases:
object
Class to generate a video from the specified rendering window. Program
ffmpeg
is used to create video from each generated frame. :param str name: name of the output file. :param int fps: set the number of frames per second. :param float duration: set the total duration of the video and recalculates fps accordingly. :param str ffmpeg: set path to ffmpeg program. Default value assumes ffmpeg command is in the path.
clear¶
closePlotter¶
closeWindow¶
download¶
embedWindow¶
exportWindow¶

vedo.dolfin.
exportWindow
(fileoutput, binary=False)[source]¶ Exporter which writes out the renderered scene into an HTML, X3D or Numpy file.
See also: FEniCS test webpage.
Note
the rendering window can also be exported to numpy file scene.npz by pressing
E
keyboard at any moment during visualization.
histogram¶

vedo.dolfin.
histogram
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Histogramming for 1D and 2D data arrays.
For 1D arrays:
 Parameters
If
mode='polar'
assume input is polar coordinate system (rho, theta): Parameters
weights (list) – array of weights, of the same shape as the input. Each value only contributes its associated weight towards the bin count (instead of 1).
title (str) – histogram title
tsize (float) – title size
bins (int) – number of bins in phi
r1 (float) – inner radius
r2 (float) – outer radius
phigap (float) – gap angle btw 2 radial bars, in degrees
rgap (float) – gap factor along radius of numeric angle labels
lpos (float) – label gap factor along radius
lsize (float) – label size
c – color of the histogram bars, can be a list of length bins.
bc – color of the frame and labels
alpha – alpha of the frame
cmap (str) – color map name
deg (bool) – input array is in degrees
vmin (float) – minimum value of the radial axis
vmax (float) – maximum value of the radial axis
labels (list) – list of labels, must be of length bins
showDisc (bool) – show the outer ring axis
nrays (int) – draw this number of axis rays (continuous and dashed)
showLines (bool) – show lines to the origin
showAngles (bool) – show angular values
showErrors (bool) – show error bars
For 2D arrays:
Input data formats [(x1,x2,..), (y1,y2,..)] or [(x1,y1), (x2,y2),..] are both valid.
 Parameters
If
mode='hexbin'
, build a hexagonal histogram from a list of x and y values. Parameters
xtitle (str) – x axis title
ytitle (str) – y axis title
bins (bool) – nr of bins for the smaller range in x or y.
vrange (list) – range in x and y in format [(xmin,xmax), (ymin,ymax)]
norm (float) – sets a scaling factor for the z axis (freq. axis).
fill (bool) – draw solid hexagons.
cmap (str) – color map name for elevation.
If
mode='spheric'
, build a histogram from list of theta and phi values. Parameters
load¶

vedo.dolfin.
load
(inputobj, unpack=True, force=False)[source]¶ Load
Mesh
,Volume
andPicture
objects from file or from the web.The output will depend on the file extension. See examples below. Unzip on the fly, if it ends with .gz. Can load an object directly from a URL address.
 Parameters
 Examples
from vedo import datadir, load, show # Return a Mesh object g = load(datadir+'250.vtk') show(g) # Return a list of 2 meshes g = load([datadir+'250.vtk', datadir+'270.vtk']) show(g) # Return a list of meshes by reading all files in a directory # (if directory contains DICOM files then a Volume is returned) g = load('mydicomdir/') show(g) # Return a Volume. Color/Opacity transfer functions can be specified later. g = load(datadir+'embryo.slc') g.c(['y','lb','w']).alpha((0.0, 0.4, 0.9, 1)).show() # Download a file from a URL address and unzip it on the fly g = load('https://vedo.embl.es/examples/panther.stl.gz') show(g)
plot¶

vedo.dolfin.
plot
(*inputobj, **options)[source]¶ Plot the object(s) provided.
Input can be any combination of:
Mesh
,Volume
,dolfin.Mesh
,dolfin.MeshFunction
,dolfin.Expression
ordolfin.Function
. Returns
the current
Plotter
class instance. Parameters
mode (str) –
one or more of the following can be combined in any order
mesh/color, will plot the mesh, by default colored with a scalar if available
displacement show displaced mesh by solution
arrows, mesh displacements are plotted as scaled arrows.
lines, mesh displacements are plotted as scaled lines.
tensors, to be implemented
add (bool) – add the input objects without clearing the already plotted ones
density (float) – show only a subset of lines or arrows [01]
wire[frame] (bool) – visualize mesh as wireframe [False]
c[olor] – set mesh color [None]
exterior (bool) – only show the outer surface of the mesh [False]
alpha (float) – set object’s transparency [1]
lw (float) – line width of the mesh (set to zero to hide mesh) [0.5]
ps (float) – set point size of mesh vertices [None]
z (float) – add a constant to zcoordinate (useful to show 2D slices as function of time)
legend (str) – add a legend to the topright of window [None]
scalarbar (bool) – add a scalarbar to the window [‘vertical’]
vmin (float) – set the minimum for the range of the scalar [None]
vmax (float) – set the maximum for the range of the scalar [None]
scale (float) – add a scaling factor to arrows and lines sizes [1]
cmap (str) – choose a color map for scalars
shading (str) – mesh shading [‘flat’, ‘phong’, ‘gouraud’]
text (str) – add a gray text comment to the topleft of the window [None]
isolines (dict) –
dictionary of isolines properties
n, (int)  add this number of isolines to the mesh
c,  isoline color
lw, (float)  isoline width
z, (float)  add to the isoline z coordinate to make them more visible
streamlines (dict) –
dictionary of streamlines properties
probes, (list, None)  custom list of points to use as seeds
tol, (float)  tolerance to reduce the number of seed points used in mesh
lw, (float)  line width of the streamline
direction, (str)  direction of integration (‘forward’, ‘backward’ or ‘both’)
maxPropagation, (float)  max propagation of the streamline
scalarRange, (list)  scalar range of coloring
warpZfactor (float) – elevate zaxis by scalar value (useful for 2D geometries)
warpYfactor (float) – elevate zaxis by scalar value (useful for 1D geometries)
scaleMeshFactors (list) – rescale mesh by these factors [1,1,1]
new (bool) – spawn a new instance of Plotter class, pops up a new window
at (int) – renderer number to plot to
shape (list) – subdvide window in (n,m) rows and columns
N (int) – automatically subdvide window in N renderers
pos (list) – (x,y) coordinates of the window position on screen
size – window size (x,y)
title (str) – window title
bg – background color name of window
bg2 – second background color name to create a color gradient
style (int) –
choose a predefined style [04]
0, vedo, style (blackboard background, rainbow color map)
1, matplotlib, style (white background, viridis color map)
2, paraview, style
3, meshlab, style
4, bw, black and white style.
axes (int) –
axes type number
0, no axes,
1, draw customizable grid axes (see below).
2, show cartesian axes from (0,0,0)
3, show positive range of cartesian axes from (0,0,0)
4, show a triad at bottom left
5, show a cube at bottom left
6, mark the corners of the bounding box
7, draw a simple ruler at the bottom of the window
8, show the vtkCubeAxesActor object,
9, show the bounding box outLine,
10, show three circles representing the maximum bounding box,
11, show a large grid on the xy plane (use with zoom=8)
12, show polar axes.
Axes type1 can be fully customized by passing a dictionary
axes=dict()
. Parameters
infinity (bool) – if True fugue point is set at infinity (no perspective effects)
sharecam (bool) – if False each renderer will have an independent vtkCamera
interactive (bool) – if True will stop after show() to allow interaction w/ window
offscreen (bool) – if True will not show the rendering window
zoom (float) – camera zooming factor
viewup – camera viewup direction [‘x’,’y’,’z’, or a vector direction]
azimuth (float) – add azimuth rotation of the scene, in degrees
elevation (float) – add elevation rotation of the scene, in degrees
roll (float) – add rolltype rotation of the scene, in degrees
camera (dict) –
Camera parameters can further be specified with a dictionary assigned to the
camera
keyword: (E.g. show(camera={‘pos’:(1,2,3), ‘thickness’:1000,})) pos, (list),
the position of the camera in world coordinates
 focalPoint, (list),
the focal point of the camera in world coordinates
 viewup, (list),
the view up direction for the camera
 distance, (float),
set the focal point to the specified distance from the camera position.
 clippingRange, (float),
distance of the near and far clipping planes along the direction of projection.
 parallelScale, (float),
scaling used for a parallel projection, i.e. the height of the viewport in worldcoordinate distances. The default is 1. Note that the “scale” parameter works as an “inverse scale”, larger numbers produce smaller images. This method has no effect in perspective projection mode.
 thickness, (float),
set the distance between clipping planes. This method adjusts the far clipping plane to be set a distance ‘thickness’ beyond the near clipping plane.
 viewAngle, (float),
the camera view angle, which is the angular height of the camera view measured in degrees. The default angle is 30 degrees. This method has no effect in parallel projection mode. The formula for setting the angle up for perfect perspective viewing is: angle = 2*atan((h/2)/d) where h is the height of the RenderWindow (measured by holding a ruler up to your screen) and d is the distance from your eyes to the screen.
interactorStyle (int) – change the style of muose interaction of the scene
q (bool) – exit python session after returning.
printHistogram¶

vedo.dolfin.
printHistogram
(data, bins=10, height=10, logscale=False, minbin=0, horizontal=False, char='▉', c=None, bold=True, title='Histogram')[source]¶ Ascii histogram printing. Input can also be
Volume
orMesh
. Returns the raw data before binning (useful when passing vtk objects). Parameters
bins (int) – number of histogram bins
height (int) – height of the histogram in character units
logscale (bool) – use logscale for frequencies
minbin (int) – ignore bins before minbin
horizontal (bool) – show histogram horizontally
char (bool) – character to be used
char – use boldface
title (str) – histogram title
 Example
from vedo import printHistogram import np as np d = np.random.normal(size=1000) data = printHistogram(d, c='blue', logscale=True, title='my scalars') data = printHistogram(d, c=1, horizontal=1) print(np.mean(data)) # data here is same as d
printc¶

vedo.dolfin.
printc
(*strings, **keys)[source]¶ Print to terminal in color (any color!).
 Parameters
c – foreground color name or (r,g,b)
bc – background color name or (r,g,b)
bold (bool) – boldface [True]
italic (bool) – italic [False]
blink (bool) – blinking text [False]
underline (bool) – underline text [False]
strike (bool) – strike through text [False]
dim (bool) – make text look dimmer [False]
invert (bool) – invert background and forward colors [False]
box – print a box with specified text character [‘’]
flush (bool) – flush buffer after printing [True]
end (str) – the end character to be printed [newline]
 Example
from vedo.colors import printc printc('anything', c='tomato', bold=False, end='' ) printc('anything', 455.5, vtkObject, c='lightblue') printc(299792.48, c=4)
screenshot¶
show¶

vedo.dolfin.
show
(*actors, **options)[source]¶ Create on the fly an instance of class
Plotter
and show the object(s) provided.Allowed input objects types are:
str
,Mesh
,Volume
,Picture
,Assembly
vtkPolyData
,vtkActor
,vtkActor2D
,vtkImageActor
,vtkAssembly
orvtkVolume
.If filename is given, its type is guessed based on its extension. Supported formats are: vtu, vts, vtp, ply, obj, stl, 3ds, xml, neutral, gmsh, pcd, xyz, txt, byu, tif, slc, vti, mhd, png, jpg.
 Parameters
at (int) – number of the renderer to plot to, if more than one exists
shape (list) –
Number of subrender windows inside of the main window. Specify two across with
shape=(2, 1)
and a two by two grid withshape=(2, 2)
. By default there is only one renderer. Can also accept a shape as string descriptor. E.g.:shape=”31” means 3 plots on the left and 1 on the right,
shape=”4/2” means 4 plots on top of 2 at bottom.
axes (int) –
set the type of axes to be shown
0, no axes
1, draw three gray grid walls
2, show cartesian axes from (0,0,0)
3, show positive range of cartesian axes from (0,0,0)
4, show a triad at bottom left
5, show a cube at bottom left
6, mark the corners of the bounding box
7, draw a 3D ruler at each side of the cartesian axes
8, show the
vtkCubeAxesActor
object9, show the bounding box outLine
10, show three circles representing the maximum bounding box
11, show a large grid on the xy plane
12, show polar axes
13, draw a simple ruler at the bottom of the window
Axis type1 can be fully customized by passing a dictionary
axes=dict()
where: Checkaddons.Axes()
for the full list of options.azimuth/elevation/roll (float) – move camera accordingly
viewup (str) – either [‘x’, ‘y’, ‘z’] or a vector to set vertical direction
resetcam (bool) – readjust camera position to fit objects
camera (dict) –
Camera parameters can further be specified with a dictionary assigned to the
camera
keyword (E.g. show(camera={‘pos’:(1,2,3), ‘thickness’:1000,}))pos, (list), the position of the camera in world coordinates
focalPoint (list), the focal point of the camera in world coordinates
viewup (list), the view up direction for the camera
distance (float), set the focal point to the specified distance from the camera position.
 clippingRange (float), distance of the near and far clipping planes along the direction
of projection.
 parallelScale (float),
scaling used for a parallel projection, i.e. the height of the viewport in worldcoordinate distances. The default is 1. Note that the “scale” parameter works as an “inverse scale”, larger numbers produce smaller images. This method has no effect in perspective projection mode.
 thickness (float),
set the distance between clipping planes. This method adjusts the far clipping plane to be set a distance ‘thickness’ beyond the near clipping plane.
 viewAngle (float),
the camera view angle, which is the angular height of the camera view measured in degrees. The default angle is 30 degrees. This method has no effect in parallel projection mode. The formula for setting the angle up for perfect perspective viewing is: angle = 2*atan((h/2)/d) where h is the height of the RenderWindow (measured by holding a ruler up to your screen) and d is the distance from your eyes to the screen.
interactive (bool) – pause and interact with window (True) or continue execution (False)
rate (float) – maximum rate of show() in Hertz
interactorStyle (int) –
set the type of interaction
0 = TrackballCamera [default]
1 = TrackballActor
2 = JoystickCamera
3 = JoystickActor
4 = Flight
5 = RubberBand2D
6 = RubberBand3D
7 = RubberBandZoom
8 = Context
9 = 3D
10 = Terrain
11 = Unicam
q (bool) – force program to quit after show() command returns.
new (bool) – if set to True, a call to
show
will instantiate a newPlotter
object (a new window) instead of reusing the first created.
 Returns
the current
Plotter
class instance.
Note
With multiple renderers, keyword
at
can become a list, e.g.from vedo import * s = Sphere() c = Cube() p = Paraboloid() show(s, c, at=[0, 1], shape=(3,1)) show(p, at=2, interactive=True) # # is equivalent to: plt = Plotter(shape=(3,1)) s = Sphere() c = Cube() p = Paraboloid() plt.show(s, at=0) plt.show(p, at=1) plt.show(c, at=2, interactive=True)