Submodule extending the vtkVolume object functionality.


class vedo.volume.Volume(inputobj=None, c='r', 'y', 'lg', 'lb', 'b', alpha=0.0, 0.0, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, alphaGradient=None, alphaUnit=1, mode=0, spacing=None, dims=None, origin=None, mapper='smart')[source]

Bases: vtkRenderingCorePython.vtkVolume, vedo.base.BaseGrid

Derived class of vtkVolume. Can be initialized with a numpy object, a vtkImageData or a list of 2D bmp files.

See e.g.: numpy2volume1.py

  • c (list,str) – sets colors along the scalar range, or a matplotlib color map name

  • alphas (float,list) – sets transparencies along the scalar range

  • alphaUnit (float) – low values make composite rendering look brighter and denser

  • origin (list) – set volume origin coordinates

  • spacing (list) – voxel dimensions in x, y and z.

  • dims (list) – specify the dimensions of the volume.

  • mapper (str) – either ‘gpu’, ‘opengl_gpu’, ‘fixed’ or ‘smart’

  • mode (int) –

    define the volumetric rendering style:

    • 0, Composite rendering

    • 1, maximum projection rendering

    • 2, minimum projection

    • 3, average projection

    • 4, additive mode


if a list of values is used for alphas this is interpreted as a transfer function along the range of the scalar.

read_vti.py read_vti.py


Assign a set of tranparencies to a volume’s gradient along the range of the scalar value. A single constant value can also be assigned. The gradient function is used to decrease the opacity in the “flat” regions of the volume while maintaining the opacity at the boundaries between material types. The gradient is measured as the amount by which the intensity changes over unit distance.

The format for alphaGrad is the same as for method volume.alpha().

read_vti.py read_vti.py

append(volumes, axis='z', preserveExtents=False)[source]

Take the components from multiple inputs and merges them into one output. Except for the append axis, all inputs must have the same extent. All inputs must have the same number of scalar components. The output has the same origin and spacing as the first input. The origin and spacing of all other inputs are ignored. All inputs must have the same scalar type.

  • axis (int,str) – axis expanded to hold the multiple images.

  • preserveExtents (bool) – if True, the extent of the inputs is used to place the image in the output. The whole extent of the output is the union of the input whole extents. Any portion of the output not covered by the inputs is set to zero. The origin and spacing is taken from the first input.

from vedo import load, datadir
vol = load(datadir+'embryo.tif')
vol.append(vol, axis='x').show()

Set/get the volume coordinates of its center. Position is reset to (0,0,0).


Return a clone copy of the Volume.


Same as color() or c().

componentWeight(i, weight)[source]

Set the scalar component weight in range [0,1].

correlationWith(vol2, dim=2)[source]

Find the correlation between two volumetric data sets. Keyword dim determines whether the correlation will be 3D, 2D or 1D. The default is a 2D Correlation. The output size will match the size of the first input. The second input is considered the correlation kernel.

crop(left=None, right=None, back=None, front=None, bottom=None, top=None, VOI=())[source]

Crop a Volume object.

  • left (float) – fraction to crop from the left plane (negative x)

  • right (float) – fraction to crop from the right plane (positive x)

  • back (float) – fraction to crop from the back plane (negative y)

  • front (float) – fraction to crop from the front plane (positive y)

  • bottom (float) – fraction to crop from the bottom plane (negative z)

  • top (float) – fraction to crop from the top plane (positive z)

  • VOI (list) –

    extract Volume Of Interest expressed in voxel numbers

    Eg.: vol.crop(VOI=(xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax, zmin, zmax)) # all integers nrs

dilate(neighbours=2, 2, 2)[source]

Replace a voxel with the maximum over an ellipsoidal neighborhood of voxels. If neighbours of an axis is 1, no processing is done on that axis.

See example script: erode_dilate.py


Return the nr. of voxels in the 3 dimensions.

erode(neighbours=2, 2, 2)[source]

Replace a voxel with the minimum over an ellipsoidal neighborhood of voxels. If neighbours of an axis is 1, no processing is done on that axis.

See example script: erode_dilate.py

euclideanDistance(anisotropy=False, maxDistance=None)[source]

Implementation of the Euclidean DT (Distance Transform) using Saito’s algorithm. The distance map produced contains the square of the Euclidean distance values. The algorithm has a O(n^(D+1)) complexity over nxnx…xn images in D dimensions.

Check out also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distance_transform

  • anisotropy (bool) – used to define whether Spacing should be used in the computation of the distances.

  • maxDistance (float) – any distance bigger than maxDistance will not be computed but set to this specified value instead.

See example script: euclDist.py

frequencyPassFilter(lowcutoff=None, highcutoff=None, order=1)[source]

Low-pass and high-pass filtering become trivial in the frequency domain. A portion of the pixels/voxels are simply masked or attenuated. This function applies a high pass Butterworth filter that attenuates the frequency domain image with the function


The gradual attenuation of the filter is important. A simple high-pass filter would simply mask a set of pixels in the frequency domain, but the abrupt transition would cause a ringing effect in the spatial domain.

  • lowcutoff (list) – the cutoff frequencies for x, y and z

  • highcutoff (list) – the cutoff frequencies for x, y and z

  • order (int) – order determines sharpness of the cutoff curve

Check out also this example:


gaussianSmooth(sigma=2, 2, 2, radius=None)[source]

Performs a convolution of the input Volume with a gaussian.

  • sigma (float,list) – standard deviation(s) in voxel units. A list can be given to smooth in the three direction differently.

  • radius (float,list) – radius factor(s) determine how far out the gaussian kernel will go before being clamped to zero. A list can be given too.


Get read-write access to voxels of a Volume object as a numpy array.

When you set values in the output image, you don’t want numpy to reallocate the array but instead set values in the existing array, so use the [:] operator. Example: arr[:] = arr*2 + 15

If the array is modified call: volume.imagedata().GetPointData().GetScalars().Modified() when all your modifications are completed.


Return the underlying vtkImagaData object.


Set interpolation type.

0 = nearest neighbour 1 = linear


If jittering is True, each ray traversal direction will be perturbed slightly using a noise-texture to get rid of wood-grain effects.


Colapses components with magnitude function.

medianSmooth(neighbours=2, 2, 2)[source]

Median filter that replaces each pixel with the median value from a rectangular neighborhood around that pixel.


Mirror flip along one of the cartesian axes.


axis='n', will flip only mesh normals.

mirror.py mirror.py


Define the volumetric rendering style.

  • 0, composite rendering

  • 1, maximum projection rendering

  • 2, minimum projection rendering

  • 3, average projection rendering

  • 4, additive mode


Normalize that scalar components for each point.

operation(operation, volume2=None)[source]

Perform operations with Volume objects.

volume2 can be a constant value.

Possible operations are: +, -, /, 1/x, sin, cos, exp, log, abs, **2, sqrt, min, max, atan, atan2, median, mag, dot, gradient, divergence, laplacian.

volumeOperations.py volumeOperations.py


Set/get the origin of the volumetric dataset.

permuteAxes(x, y, z)[source]

Reorder the axes of the Volume by specifying the input axes which are supposed to become the new X, Y, and Z.

resample(newSpacing, interpolation=1)[source]

Resamples a Volume to be larger or smaller.

This method modifies the spacing of the input. Linear interpolation is used to resample the data.

  • newSpacing (list) – a list of 3 new spacings for the 3 axes.

  • interpolation (int) – 0=nearest_neighbor, 1=linear, 2=cubic


Increase or reduce the number of voxels of a Volume with interpolation.


Return the range of the scalar values.


Scale the voxel content by factor scale.

slicePlane(origin=0, 0, 0, normal=1, 1, 1)[source]

Extract the slice along a given plane position and normal.

slicePlane.py slicePlane.py


Set/get the voxels size in the 3 dimensions.

threshold(above=None, below=None, replaceWith=0)[source]

Binary or continuous volume thresholding. Find the voxels that contain a value above/below the input values and replace them with a new value (default is 0).


Extract all image voxels as points. This function takes an input Volume and creates an Mesh that contains the points and the point attributes.

See example script: vol2points.py


Extract the slice at index i of volume along x-axis.


Extract the slice at index j of volume along y-axis.


Extract the slice at index i of volume along z-axis.


vedo.volume.interpolateToVolume(mesh, kernel='shepard', radius=None, N=None, bounds=None, nullValue=None, dims=25, 25, 25)[source]

Generate a Volume by interpolating a scalar or vector field which is only known on a scattered set of points or mesh. Available interpolation kernels are: shepard, gaussian, or linear.

  • kernel (str) – interpolation kernel type [shepard]

  • radius (float) – radius of the local search

  • bounds (list) – bounding box of the output Volume object

  • dims (list) – dimensions of the output Volume object

  • nullValue (float) – value to be assigned to invalid points

interpolateVolume.py interpolateVolume.py


vedo.volume.mesh2Volume(mesh, spacing=1, 1, 1)[source]

Convert a mesh it into a Volume where the foreground (exterior) voxels value is 1 and the background (interior) voxels value is 0. Internally the vtkPolyDataToImageStencil class is used.

mesh2volume.py mesh2volume.py


vedo.volume.signedDistanceFromPointCloud(mesh, maxradius=None, bounds=None, dims=20, 20, 20)[source]

Compute signed distances over a volume from an input point cloud. The output is a Volume object whose voxels contains the signed distance from the cloud.

  • maxradius (float) – how far out to propagate distance calculation

  • bounds (list) – volume bounds.

  • dims (list) – dimensions (nr. of voxels) of the output volume.


vedo.volume.volumeFromMesh(mesh, bounds=None, dims=20, 20, 20, signed=True, negate=False)[source]

Compute signed distances over a volume from an input mesh. The output is a Volume object whose voxels contains the signed distance from the mesh.

  • bounds (list) – bounds of the output volume.

  • dims (list) – dimensions (nr. of voxels) of the output volume.

See example script: volumeFromMesh.py